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BANQUES GENERALES NATHANIEL PRENTISS, USA - Historique

BANQUES GENERALES NATHANIEL PRENTISS, USA - Historique



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STATISTIQUES VITALES
NÉE: 1816 à Waltham, MA.
DÉCÉDÉS: 1894 à Waltham, MA.
CAMPAGNES : Montagne des Cèdres et rivière Rouge.
RANG LE PLUS ÉLEVÉ ATTEINT : Major général.
BIOGRAPHIE
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks est né le 30 janvier 1816 à Waltham, Massachusetts. Il est devenu un succès autodidacte, sortant de la pauvreté pour assumer un rôle de leader au sein du Parti démocrate. Banks a quitté le parti en raison de l'opposition à la loi Kansas-Nebraska et a rejoint le nouveau Parti républicain. En 1858, il devient gouverneur du Massachusetts. Il a rejoint l'armée de l'Union, utilisant son influence politique pour l'aider à atteindre un grade militaire élevé. Au début de la guerre, le président Abraham Lincoln nomma Banks major général des volontaires, . En 1861, alors qu'il commandait des troupes dans la vallée de Shenandoah, le brigadier. Le général Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson harcelait les troupes de l'Union. Banks reçut des ordres contradictoires de Lincoln et du major George B. McClellan et fut incapable de piéger les confédérés. Les troupes ont été défaites, mais Banks a été innocenté de tout acte répréhensible. Alors qu'il commandait l'avant-garde des troupes du major John Pope, Banks rencontra les forces de Jackson à Cedar Mountain. Les renforts confédérés ont pris la victoire des mains de l'Union et Banks a subi des critiques pour la défaite. Néanmoins, il réussit à surmonter les effets de ces critiques et à obtenir un poste de commandant du département du Golfe. À ce poste, Banks a travaillé avec le major Ulysses S. Grant pour ouvrir le Mississippi. Malheureusement, Banks n'a pas été efficace et ses troupes ont subi de lourdes pertes lors des attaques sur Port Hudson. Lorsqu'il commanda la campagne de la rivière Rouge en 1864; les canonnières de la Marine furent presque capturées et Banks retourna au Mississippi sans avoir accompli quoi que ce soit d'important dans la tentative. Il a été retiré du commandement militaire effectif et a quitté l'armée. En 1865, il retourne au Massachusetts et est élu pour six mandats à la Chambre des représentants des États-Unis. Banks est décédé le 1er septembre 1894 à Waltham, dans le Massachusetts.

File:Major General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks of General Staff U.S. Volunteers Infantry Regiment en uniforme, avec son épouse Mary Theodosia Palmer Banks, qui tient un livre ouvert) - Henry F. Warren, RCAC2017659650.jpg

Ce travail est dans le domaine public dans son pays d'origine et dans d'autres pays et régions où la durée du droit d'auteur est celle de l'auteur vie plus 100 ans ou moins.

Ce travail est dans le domaine public aux États-Unis parce qu'il a été publié (ou enregistré auprès du US Copyright Office) avant le 1er janvier 1926.

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Carrière politique [ modifier | modifier la source]

Banks a été démocrate à la Chambre des représentants du Massachusetts de 1849 à 1853, et a été président en 1851 et 1852, il a été président de la Convention constitutionnelle de l'État de 1853, et la même année a été élu à la Chambre des représentants des États-Unis en tant que candidat de la coalition des Démocrates et des Free-Soilers. En 1854, il est réélu en tant que Know Nothing.

À l'ouverture du trente-quatrième congrès, des hommes de plusieurs partis opposés à la propagation de l'esclavage se sont progressivement unis pour soutenir Banks pour le président, et après le plus long et l'un des plus acharnés concours de présidents jamais, du 3 décembre 1855 au 2 février , 1856, il est choisi au 133e tour de scrutin. C'est ce qu'on a appelé la première victoire nationale du parti républicain. Il donna pour la première fois aux hommes antiesclavagistes des postes importants au Congrès et coopéra aux enquêtes sur le conflit du Kansas et la bastonnade du sénateur Charles Sumner. Pourtant, il a également laissé un héritage d'équité dans ses nominations et ses décisions. Il a joué un rôle clé en 1856 dans la promotion de John C. Frémont en tant que candidat républicain modéré à la présidence. Dans le cadre de ce processus, Banks a refusé, comme convenu, la nomination présidentielle de ces Know-Nothings, opposés à la propagation de l'esclavage, en faveur du républicain Frémont. Au cours des années suivantes, Banks a été soutenu par une coalition de Know-Nothings et de républicains du Massachusetts. Son intérêt pour le programme législatif Know-Nothing était minime, ne soutenant que certaines exigences de résidence plus strictes pour voter.

Réélu en 1856 en tant que républicain, il démissionna de son siège en décembre 1857 et fut gouverneur du Massachusetts de 1858 à 1860, pendant une période de contraction gouvernementale forcée par la dépression de ces années-là. Il a fait une sérieuse tentative pour gagner la nomination présidentielle républicaine en 1860, mais la discorde au sein de son parti dans le Massachusetts, une résidence dans un État républicain « sûr », et son passé Know-Nothing ont voué ses chances. Il a ensuite été brièvement directeur résident à Chicago, Illinois, de l'Illinois Central Railroad, embauché principalement pour promouvoir la vente des vastes terres du chemin de fer.


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Gilder Lehrman Collection # : GLC08878.0117 Auteur/Créateur : Buttre, John Chester, (1821-1893) Lieu écrit : New York, New York Type : Gravure Date : 1861 Pagination : 1 tirage : b&w 20,5 x 29 cm.

Une gravure intitulée "Généraux de notre armée 1861" datée de 1861. Portraits du major-général George B. McClellan, du major-général Benjamin Franklin Butler, du major-général John Adams Dix, du major-général John Charles Freemont, du lieutenant-général Winfield Scott, du major-général Nathaniel Prentiss Banks, du brigadier Le général Robert Anderson, le général de division John Elias Wool et le général de brigade Nathaniel Lyon. Gravé par John Chester Buttre.

Avis de droit d'auteur La loi sur le droit d'auteur des États-Unis (titre 17, Code des États-Unis) régit la réalisation de photocopies ou d'autres reproductions de matériel protégé par le droit d'auteur. Sous certaines conditions prévues par la loi, les bibliothèques et archives sont autorisées à fournir une photocopie ou une autre reproduction. L'une de ces conditions spécifiques est que la photocopie ou la reproduction ne doit pas être "utilisée à des fins autres que l'étude privée, la bourse ou la recherche". Si un utilisateur fait une demande ou utilise ultérieurement une photocopie ou une reproduction à des fins dépassant le « fair use », cet utilisateur peut être tenu responsable d'une violation du droit d'auteur. Cette institution se réserve le droit de refuser d'accepter une commande de copie si, à son avis, l'exécution de la commande impliquerait une violation de la loi sur le droit d'auteur.

(646) 366-9666

Quartier général: 49 W. 45th Street 2e étage New York, NY 10036

Notre Collection : 170 Central Park West New York, NY 10024 Situé au niveau inférieur de la New-York Historical Society


Congrès[modifier | modifier la source]

En 1852, Banks sollicita l'investiture démocrate pour un siège au Congrès des États-Unis. Alors qu'il a d'abord été accordé, son refus de désavouer les positions abolitionnistes a entraîné le retrait du soutien du parti. Il a fini par remporter une victoire serrée avec le soutien de Free Soil. En 1853, il a présidé la Convention constitutionnelle de l'État de 1853. Cette convention a produit une série de propositions de réforme constitutionnelle, y compris une nouvelle constitution, qui ont toutes été rejetées par les électeurs. L'échec, qui a été mené par les Whigs et les démocrates anti-abolitionnistes conservateurs, a sonné le glas de la coalition Democratic-Free Soil. ⎙]

Au Congrès, Banks siégeait au Comité des affaires militaires. Il a résisté à la ligne du parti démocrate en votant contre la loi Kansas-Nebraska, qui a renversé le compromis du Missouri de 1820. Soutenu par ses commettants, il s'est alors publiquement engagé pour la cause abolitionniste. ⎚] En 1854, il a officiellement rejoint la cause Know Nothing, a été renommé pour le Congrès par les démocrates et les soldats libres, et a remporté une victoire facile dans le glissement de terrain de Know Nothing. ⎛]

En 1855, Banks accepta de présider la convention d'une nouvelle convention du Parti républicain, dont la plate-forme était destinée à rassembler les intérêts antiesclavagistes des démocrates, des Whigs, des soldats libres et des Know Nothings. Lorsque le gouverneur de Know Nothing, Henry Gardner, a refusé de se joindre à la fusion, Banks a soigneusement gardé ses options ouvertes, soutenant passivement l'effort républicain mais évitant également de critiquer Gardner dans ses discours. Gardner a été réélu. ⎜]

À l'ouverture du trente-quatrième congrès en décembre 1855, des hommes de plusieurs partis opposés à la propagation de l'esclavage s'unirent progressivement pour soutenir Banks comme orateur. Après le plus long et l'un des concours de conférencier les plus acharnés jamais enregistrés, du 3 décembre 1855 au 2 février 1856, Banks fut choisi au 133e tour de scrutin. ⎝] Cela a été appelé la première victoire nationale du parti républicain. Il a donné pour la première fois aux hommes antiesclavagistes des postes importants au Congrès et a coopéré aux enquêtes sur le conflit du Kansas et la bastonnade du sénateur Charles Sumner. En raison de son équité dans ses relations avec les nombreuses factions, ainsi que de ses capacités parlementaires, Banks a été salué par d'autres membres du corps, y compris l'ancien président Howell Cobb, qui l'a appelé « à tous égards le meilleur président [j'ai] jamais vu. " ⎟]

Banks a joué un rôle clé en 1856 en proposant John C. Frémont en tant que candidat républicain modéré à la présidence. En raison de son succès en tant que conférencier, Banks a été considéré comme un candidat éventuel à la présidentielle, et son nom a été mis en nomination par des partisans (sachant qu'il soutenait Frémont) lors de la convention Know Nothing, tenue une semaine avant la rencontre des républicains. Banks a ensuite refusé la nomination de Know Nothing, ne leur laissant d'autre choix que de soutenir Frémont. Banks était actif sur la souche en faveur de Frémont, qui a perdu l'élection à James Buchanan Banks a facilement été réélu à son propre siège. Les démocrates ont cependant repris le contrôle de la Chambre des représentants, le privant de la présidence. ⎠]

Gouverneur du Massachusetts[modifier | modifier la source]

En 1857, Banks se présenta au poste de gouverneur du Massachusetts contre le titulaire Henry Gardner. Sa nomination par les républicains était controversée, l'opposition venant principalement d'intérêts antiesclavagistes radicaux opposés à sa position relativement modérée sur la question. Après une campagne controversée, Banks a remporté une victoire confortable. ⎡]

Le mandat des banques a coïncidé avec une période de contraction du gouvernement forcée par la dépression de ces années. Il a fait une sérieuse tentative pour gagner la nomination présidentielle républicaine en 1860, mais la discorde au sein de son parti dans le Massachusetts, une résidence dans un État républicain « sûr », et son passé Know-Nothing ont voué ses chances. Il a ensuite été brièvement directeur résident à Chicago, Illinois, de l'Illinois Central Railroad, embauché principalement pour promouvoir la vente des vastes terres du chemin de fer.


1er juin 1861

Aquia Creek, Virginie(Bataille limitée CWSAC – non concluante)

Cour de Fairfax Maison, Virginie

La campagne de McClellan en Virginie-Occidentale

Baie de Chesapeake Blocus

Grande Bretagne. La Grande-Bretagne refusa de recevoir au port les prises des navires armés ou corsaires des États-Unis ou des États confédérés belligérants.

Caroline du Nord. USS syndicat, le commandant J R Goldsborough, capture la goélette confédérée FW Johnson avec une cargaison de fer de chemin de fer au large de la côte.

Virginie. Escarmouche à Arlington Mills.

Virginie. Le colonel de l'Union Thomas Armstrong Morris est arrivé à Grafton avec une brigade de volontaires. Cela a finalement sécurisé le Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. Morris approuva le plan du colonel Benjamin Franklin Kelley de lancer une attaque sur deux fronts contre les forces confédérées à Philippes, à environ trente milles du nœud ferroviaire vital de Grafton. L'avance principale serait réalisée par 1 600 hommes dirigés par Kelley lui-même, et comprendrait six compagnies de son propre régiment, neuf du 9 e d'Infanterie de l'Indiana sous le colonel Robert Huston Milroy, et six du 16 e d'Infanterie de l'Ohio. Afin de tromper l'ennemi en lui faisant croire que leur objectif était Harper's Ferry, ils sont partis vers l'est en train. Ils se sont désentraînés au petit village de Thornton et ont marché vers le sud sur une route secondaire (du même côté de la rivière que Philippi) dans l'intention d'arriver à l'arrière de la ville. Pendant ce temps, le 7 e d'Infanterie de l'Indiana commandé par le colonel Ebenezer Dumont fut envoyé à Webster, à environ trois milles et demi au sud-ouest de Grafton. Là, ils allaient se combiner avec le 6 e Indiana du colonel Thomas Turpin Crittenden et le 14 e d'infanterie de l'Ohio du colonel James Blair Steedman. La colonne combinée, avec un total de 1 400 hommes et deux canons de 6 livres sous le commandement de Dumont (avec l'aide du colonel Frederick West Lander, agissant comme aide de camp volontaire du major-général George Brinton McClellan), marcher directement au sud de Webster sur le Turnpike. De cette façon, la force de l'Union exécuterait un double enveloppement des confédérés à Philippes.

Virginie. Incident à Arlington Mills.

Ruisseau Aquia, Virginie. Le bombardement des batteries confédérées à Aquia Creek a été repris par l'USS Thomas Naissance libre, USS Anacostie, USS Résolu et le sloop USS Pawnee pendant près de cinq heures. Ils ont tiré plus de 500 cartouches, mais les confédérés n'ont signalé la mort que d'un poulet et d'un cheval. Tant l'USS Thomas Freeborn et USS Pawnee a subi des dommages mineurs, mais aucun membre d'équipage n'a été grièvement blessé ou tué. Après la bataille, les confédérés renforcent les défenses, construisent une troisième batterie sur la falaise et une quatrième à l'embouchure d'Aquia Creek à Brent Point. (Bataille limitée CWSAC – non concluante)

Cour de Fairfax Maison, Virginie. Au petit matin, un détachement de 50 hommes de la compagnie B 2 nd US Cavalry sous les ordres du lieutenant C H Tompkins est entré dans le palais de justice de Fairfax et a engagé les Warrenton Rifles dans le premier conflit terrestre entre des unités militaires organisées sur terre pendant la guerre de Sécession. Le capitaine confédéré John Quincy Marr a été touché par une balle perdue et est devenu le premier officier confédéré tué pendant la guerre civile

Organisation syndicale

Etats-Unis: Major général Banques Nathaniel Prentiss pris le commandement de la Département d'Annapolis , arrivé le 11 juin 1861, succédant au major-général John Adams Dix.

Banques, Nathaniel Prentiss / Massachusetts / Né le 30 janvier 1816 Waltham, Massachusetts / Décédé à Waltham, Massachusetts le 1er septembre 1894
Major-général USV 16 mai 1861 / Rassemblé USV 24 août 1865
Division des banques Département d'Annapolis mai 1861-11 juin 1861 / Département d'Annapolis 11 juin 1861-19 juillet 1861 / Département du Shenandoah 19 juillet 1861-17 août 1861 / Division des banques Armée du Potomac 17 août 1861-3 mars 1862 / V Corps Potomac 13 mars 1862-4 avril 1862 / Department of the Shenandoah 4 avril 1862-26 juin 1862 / II Corps Virginia 26 juin 1862-23 septembre 1862 / Military District of Washington (Defences of Washington) 7 septembre 1862-27 octobre 1862 / Département du Golfe 8 novembre 1862-23 septembre 1864 / Armée du Golfe 15 décembre 1862-22 septembre 1864 / XIX Corps Gulf 16 décembre 1862-19 août 1863 / Département du Golfe 18 mars 1865-3 juin 1865 / Armée du Golfe 22 avril 1865-2 juin 1865

Commandant en chef : Président Abraham Lincoln

Vice-président : Hannibal Hamlin

Secrétaire à la Guerre : Simon Cameron

Secrétaire de la Marine : Gideon Welles

Escadron de blocage de l'Atlantique : Silas Horton Stringham
Escadron de Blocage du Golfe : William Mervine
Escadron du Pacifique : John Berrien Montgomery
Flottille de canonnières occidentales : John Rodgers
Flottille du Potomac : James Harmon Ward

Général en chef : Winfield Scott

Département d'Annapolis: l'intérimaire de John Adams Dix Nathaniel Prentiss Banks attendu

Département de l'Est : John Ellis Wool

Département de Floride : Harvey Brown

Département du Kentucky : Robert Anderson

Département du Nouveau-Mexique : Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

Département de Virginie du Nord-Est : Irvin McDowell

Département de l'Ohio : George Brinton McClellan

Département du Pacifique : Edwin Vose Sumner

Département de Pennsylvanie : Robert Patterson

Département du Texas : vacant

Département de l'Utah : Philip St George Cooke

Département de Virginie : Benjamin Franklin Butler

Département de Washington : Joseph King Fenno Mansfield

Département de l'Ouest : Nathaniel Lyon

Organisation confédérée

Commandant en chef : Président Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-président : Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secrétaire à la Guerre : Leroy Pope Walker

Secrétaire de la Marine : Stephen Russell Mallory

Département n°1 : David Emanuel Twiggs

Département du Potomac : Milledge Luke Bonham l'intérimaire Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard attendu

Département de Norfolk : Benjamin Huger

Département de Caroline du Nord : Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Département de la Péninsule : temporaire Daniel Harvey Hill

Département de Caroline du Sud : Daniel Harvey Hill

Département de Virginie du Sud-Ouest : William Wing Loring

Département du Texas : Earl Van Dorn

Département de l'ouest de la Floride : Braxton Bragg

Défenses de Savannah : Alexander Robert Lawton

Territoire indien : Benjamin McCulloch

Ligne Potomac : Daniel Ruggles

Forces à Harper's Ferry » : Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Forces à Richmond : Thomas Turner Fauntleroy

Forces dans la vallée de Kanawha : Christopher Quarles Tompkins

Généraux de l'Union

Remarque : italique, en attente de confirmation de la commission

Major-général USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
Jean Charles Frémont

Major-général USV

John Adams Dix
Banques Nathaniel Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Majordome

Brigadier-général États-Unis

Laine John Ellis
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph Roi Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-général USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Chasseur
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Pierre de Charles Pomeroy
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
Jean Pape
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philippe Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysse Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Canapé Darius Nash
Roi Rufus
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alphée Starkey Williams
Israël Bush Richardson
James Cooper

Brigadier-général USA (état-major)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs

Généraux confédérés

Remarque : italique, en attente de confirmation de la commission

ACSA général

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston

Major-général PACS

Brigadier-général ACSA

Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-général PACS

Alexandre Robert Lawton
Lac Milledge Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker


Pas aussi

  1. ↑ Algumas fontes tem incorretamente grafado o nome do meio de Nathaniel como "Prentiss". Embora muitos historiadores militares prefiram "Prentiss", esta grafia defeituosa provavelmente deriva de um esboço biográfico amplamente utilizado que ele não aprovava. O general se recusou a aceitar pedidos de esboços biográficos, e compiladores confiando em esboços antigos e inexatos, aparentemente repetiram essa errônea ortografia "Prentiss". Como esta ortografia não aparece em outros documentos importantes, em sua lápide, ou em muitas cartas endereçadas a ele por parentes. Há apenas um documento, na volumosa coleção de manuscritos de Banks, no qual Nathaniel escreveu seu nome do meio. Ele então escreveu o nome "Prentice".
  2. ↑ Dossiers vitaux de Waltham, Massachusetts, jusqu'en 1850, New-England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, 1904, p. 12. Mesma data constante na lápide de seu tumulo, no cemitério de Grove Hill.
  3. ↑ Décès, Town Records, Waltham, Massachusetts 1885-98, p. 81 New York Times, 2 de setembro de 1894 Mesma data constante na lápide de seu tumulo, no cemitério de Grove Hill.
  4. ↑ Dossiers vitaux de Waltham, Massachusetts, jusqu'en 1850, New-England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, 1904, p. 12.
  5. Enregistré dans Town Records de Waltham, Massachusetts. Esta informação está afixada na parte de trás do índice, citando informações recebidas de Providence.
  6. Banks, R.H., p. 9-25.
  7. uneb Hivers, p. 146.
  8. ↑ Hivers, p. 390.
  9. ↑ Hivers, p. 236.
  10. ↑ Banks, R.H., p. 1312-17.
  11. ↑ A placa no fornecida pela local Comissão Histórica de Winthrop. Fotografada em 19 de outubro de 2009

BANQUES GENERALES NATHANIEL PRENTISS, USA - Historique

Banques Nathaniel Prentiss (1816-1894)

Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (30 janvier 1816 - 1er septembre 1894), homme politique et soldat américain, est né à Waltham, Massachusetts. Il n'a reçu qu'une éducation scolaire ordinaire et a commencé très jeune à travailler comme bobineur dans une usine de coton dont son père était le surintendant. Par la suite, il a édité un journal hebdomadaire à Waltham, a étudié le droit et a été admis au barreau, son énergie et ses capacités d'orateur lui ont rapidement valu la distinction.

Le général Nathaniel Banks a été gouverneur du Massachusetts et président de la Chambre des représentants des États-Unis avant de devenir général dans l'armée de l'Union.

Il a été Free Soiler à la Chambre des représentants du Massachusetts de 1849 à 1853, et a été président en 1851 et 1852, il a été président de la Convention constitutionnelle de l'État de 1853 et, la même année, a été élu à la Chambre des représentants des États-Unis en tant que un candidat de la coalition des Démocrates et des Free-Soilers. En 1854, il fut réélu en tant que Know Nothing, mais il quitta bientôt ce parti également et, en 1855, présida une convention républicaine dans le Massachusetts.

À l'ouverture du 34e Congrès, les hommes anti-Nebraska s'unirent progressivement pour soutenir Banks pour le président, et après l'un des concours de présidents les plus amers et les plus prolongés de l'histoire du congrès, du 3 décembre 1855 au 2 février 1856, il a été choisi au 133e tour. C'est ce qu'on a appelé la première victoire nationale du parti républicain.

Réélu en 1856 en tant que républicain, il démissionne de son siège en décembre 1857 et est gouverneur du Massachusetts de 1858 à 1861, période marquée par de notables réformes administratives et éducatives. Il succéda ensuite à George B. McClellan comme président de l'Illinois Central Railway. Lorsque McClellan entra dans sa campagne péninsulaire en 1862, l'importante tâche de défendre Washington contre l'armée de « Stonewall » Jackson incomba au corps commandé par Banks.

Au printemps, Banks reçut l'ordre d'attaquer Jackson dans la vallée de Shenandoah, mais ce dernier, avec des forces supérieures, le vainquit à Winchester, en Virginie, le 25 mai, et le refoula vers la rivière Potomac. Le 9 août, Banks rencontra à nouveau Jackson à Cedar Mountain et, bien que largement dépassé en nombre, réussit à tenir bon après une bataille très sanglante.

Il a ensuite été placé à la tête de la garnison de Washington et, en novembre, a quitté New York avec une force importante pour remplacer le général B. F. Butler à la Nouvelle-Orléans, en Louisiane, en tant que commandant du département du Golfe. Ayant reçu l'ordre de coopérer avec Grant, qui était alors devant Vicksburg, il investit les défenses de Port Hudson, en Louisiane, en mai 1863, et après trois tentatives pour emporter les travaux d'assaut, il assiégea la ville. La garnison se rendit à Banks le 9 juillet, après avoir appris que Vicksburg était tombée.

À l'automne 1863, Banks organisa plusieurs expéditions au Texas, principalement dans le but d'empêcher les Français du Mexique d'aider les confédérés, et s'assura la possession de la région près des embouchures de la Nueces et du Rio Grande. Mais son expédition sur la rivière Rouge, de mars à mai 1864, imposée par une autorité supérieure, fut un échec complet.

En août 1865, il fut retiré du service et, de 1865 à 1873, il fut à nouveau représentant au Congrès, en tant que président de la commission des affaires étrangères. Cependant, une querelle personnelle avec le président Ulysses Grant l'a conduit en 1872 à rejoindre la révolte libérale-républicaine en faveur d'Horace Greeley, et en tant que candidat libéral-républicain et démocrate, il a été défait pour sa réélection.

En 1874, il réussit en tant que candidat démocrate, pour un mandat (1875-1877). Ayant rejoint le parti républicain en 1876, il fut maréchal des États-Unis pour le Massachusetts de 1879 à 1888, date à laquelle, pour la neuvième fois, il fut élu au Congrès.

Il se retira à la fin de son mandat (1891) et mourut à Waltham le 1er septembre 1894.


Contenu

Nathaniel Prentice Banks est né à Waltham, Massachusetts, le premier enfant de Nathaniel P. Banks, Sr., et Rebecca Greenwood Banks, le 30 janvier 1816. Son père a travaillé dans l'usine textile de la Boston Manufacturing Company, devenant finalement un contremaître. . [3] Les banques sont allées aux écoles locales jusqu'à l'âge de quatorze ans, à quel point les exigences financières de la famille l'ont obligé à prendre un travail d'usine. Il a commencé en tant que garçon de bobines, chargé de remplacer les bobines pleines de fil par des bobines vides, [4] travaillant dans les usines de Waltham et Lowell. [5] En raison de ce rôle, il est devenu connu sous le nom de Bobbin Boy Banks, un surnom qu'il a porté tout au long de sa vie. [6] Il était à un moment donné apprenti comme mécanicien aux côtés d'Elias Howe, un cousin qui avait plus tard le premier brevet pour une machine à coudre avec une conception de point noué. [7]

Reconnaissant la valeur de l'éducation, Banks a continué à lire, marchant parfois jusqu'à Boston pendant ses jours de congé pour visiter la bibliothèque Atheneum. Il a assisté à des conférences parrainées par l'entreprise par des sommités de l'époque, dont Daniel Webster et d'autres orateurs. Il a formé un club de débat avec d'autres ouvriers du moulin pour améliorer leurs compétences oratoires, et a commencé à jouer. Il s'est impliqué dans le mouvement de tempérance local en prenant la parole lors de ses événements, ce qui l'a porté à l'attention des dirigeants du Parti démocrate, qui lui ont demandé de prendre la parole lors des événements de campagne lors des élections de 1840. Il a perfectionné ses compétences oratoires et politiques en imitant Robert Rantoul Jr., un membre du Congrès démocrate qui a également eu des débuts modestes. [8] Sa beauté personnelle, sa voix et son flair pour la présentation étaient tous des atouts qu'il utilisait pour gagner un avantage dans la sphère politique, et il cherchait délibérément à se présenter avec une allure plus aristocratique que ce que suggéraient ses humbles débuts. [9]

Le succès de Banks en tant que conférencier l'a convaincu de quitter l'usine. Il a d'abord travaillé comme rédacteur en chef pour deux journaux politiques de courte durée après leur échec, il a brigué un siège à la législature de l'État en 1844, mais a perdu. Il a ensuite postulé un emploi à Rantoul, qui avait été nommé collecteur du port de Boston, un poste de mécénat. [10] Le travail de Banks, qu'il a occupé jusqu'à ce que des changements politiques l'obligent à partir en 1849, [11] lui a donné une sécurité suffisante pour qu'il puisse épouser Mary Theodosia Palmer, une ancienne employée d'usine qu'il courtisait depuis un certain temps. [12] Les banques ont couru de nouveau pour la législature de l'État en 1847, mais sans succès. [13]

En 1848, Banks remporta une autre course à la législature de l'État, organisant avec succès des éléments à Waltham dont les votes n'étaient pas facilement contrôlés par la Boston Manufacturing Company, contrôlée par le Whig. Les chefs d'entreprise pouvaient effectivement obliger leurs travailleurs à voter pour les candidats Whig parce qu'il n'y avait pas de scrutin secret. [14] Il était d'abord modéré dans l'opposition à l'expansion de l'esclavage, mais reconnaissant la puissance du mouvement abolitionniste naissant, il est devenu plus fortement attaché à cette cause comme un véhicule pour l'avancement politique. [15] Cela a amené Banks, avec ses collègues démocrates Rantoul et George S. Boutwell à former une coalition avec le Free Soil Party qui a réussi à prendre le contrôle de la législature et du siège du gouverneur. Les accords négociés après la victoire de la coalition aux élections de 1850 placent Boutwell dans le fauteuil du gouverneur et font de Banks le président de la Chambre des représentants du Massachusetts. Bien que Banks n'ait pas aimé le radical Free Soiler Charles Sumner (que ce soit personnellement ou pour sa politique fortement abolitionniste), il a soutenu l'accord de coalition qui a abouti à l'élection de Sumner au Sénat des États-Unis, malgré l'opposition des démocrates conservateurs. Son rôle en tant que porte-parole de la maison et son efficacité dans la conduite des affaires ont considérablement augmenté son statut [16], tout comme son travail publicitaire pour le Conseil de l'éducation de l'État. [17]

Congrès Modifier

En 1852, Banks sollicita l'investiture démocrate pour un siège au Congrès des États-Unis. Alors qu'il a d'abord été accordé, son refus de désavouer les positions abolitionnistes a entraîné le retrait du soutien des conservateurs du parti. Il a quand même remporté une victoire serrée, avec le soutien de Free Soil. [18] En 1853, il a présidé la Convention constitutionnelle de l'État de 1853. Cette convention a produit une série de propositions de réforme constitutionnelle, y compris une nouvelle constitution, qui ont toutes été rejetées par les électeurs. L'échec, qui a été mené par les Whigs et les démocrates anti-abolitionnistes conservateurs, a sonné le glas de la coalition Democratic-Free Soil. [19]

Au Congrès, Banks siégeait au Comité des affaires militaires. Il a résisté à la ligne du parti démocrate en votant contre la loi Kansas-Nebraska, qui a annulé le compromis du Missouri de 1820, en utilisant ses compétences parlementaires dans le but d'empêcher le projet de loi d'être voté. [20] Soutenu par ses électeurs, il a ensuite publiquement endossé la cause abolitionniste. [21] Son opposition est venue malgré le soutien déclaré depuis longtemps pour Manifest Destiny (l'idée que les États-Unis étaient destinés à gouverner le continent nord-américain), que les partisans du projet de loi ont prétendu qu'il favorisait. [22] En 1854, il a officiellement rejoint la soi-disant cause Know Nothing, un mouvement nativiste populiste et anti-immigration secret - officiellement nommé Parti américain depuis 1855. Il a été renommé pour le Congrès par les démocrates et les Free Soilers, et a remporté une victoire facile dans la victoire écrasante de Know Nothing cette année-là. [23] Banks était, avec Henry Wilson et le gouverneur Henry J. Gardner, considéré comme l'un des dirigeants politiques du mouvement Know Nothing, bien qu'aucun des trois n'ait soutenu les positions anti-immigrées extrêmes de nombre de ses partisans. [24]

En 1855, Banks accepta de présider la convention d'une nouvelle convention du Parti républicain, dont la plate-forme était destinée à rassembler les intérêts antiesclavagistes des démocrates, des Whigs, des Free Soilers et des Know Nothings. Lorsque le gouverneur de Know Nothing, Henry Gardner, a refusé de se joindre à la fusion, Banks a soigneusement gardé ses options ouvertes, soutenant passivement l'effort républicain mais évitant également de critiquer Gardner dans ses discours. Gardner a été réélu. [25] Au cours de l'été 1855, Banks a été invité à prendre la parole lors d'un rassemblement anti-esclavagiste à Portland, Maine, sa première grande opportunité de parler en dehors du Massachusetts. Dans le discours, Banks a exprimé son opinion selon laquelle l'Union n'avait pas nécessairement besoin d'être préservée, affirmant que dans certaines conditions, il serait approprié de "laisser [l'Union] glisser". De futurs opposants politiques utiliseraient à plusieurs reprises ces propos contre lui, l'accusant de « désunionisme ». [26]

A l'ouverture du trente-quatrième congrès en décembre 1855, après que les démocrates eurent perdu leur majorité et ne représentaient plus que 35 % de la Chambre, les représentants de plusieurs partis opposés à la propagation de l'esclavage s'unirent progressivement pour soutenir les Know Nothing Banks pour le président de la Loger. Après le plus long et l'un des concours de conférencier les plus acharnés jamais enregistrés, du 3 décembre 1855 au 2 février 1856, Banks fut choisi au 133e tour de scrutin. [27] La ​​coalition qui le soutient a été formée par son Parti américain (connu sous le nom de "Parti de ne rien savoir") et le soi-disant Parti d'opposition, qui s'est opposé aux démocrates, marquant la première forme de coalition dans l'histoire du Congrès. This victory was lauded at the time as the "first Republican victory" and "first Northern victory" – although Banks is officially affiliated as Speaker from the American Party – and greatly raised Banks' national profile. [28] He gave antislavery men important posts in Congress for the first time, and cooperated with investigations of both the Kansas conflict and the caning of Charles Sumner on the floor of the Senate. Because of his fairness in dealing with the numerous factions, as well his parliamentary ability, Banks was lauded by others in the body, including former Speaker Howell Cobb, who called him "in all respects the best presiding officer [I] had ever seen." [29]

Banks played a key role in 1856 in bringing forward John C. Frémont as a moderate Republican presidential nominee. Because of his success as speaker, Banks was considered a possible presidential contender, and his name was put in nomination by supporters (knowing that he supported Frémont) at the Know Nothing convention, held one week before the Republicans met. Banks then refused the Know Nothing nomination, which went instead to former President Millard Fillmore. Banks was active on the stump in support of Frémont, who lost the election to James Buchanan Banks easily won reelection to his own seat. Democrats, however, regained control of the House of Representatives, depriving him of the speakership. [30]

Governor of Massachusetts Edit

In 1857, Banks ran for Governor of Massachusetts against the incumbent Gardner. His nomination by the Republicans was contentious, with opposition coming primarily from radical abolitionist interests opposed to his comparatively moderate stand on the issue. After a contentious general election campaign Banks won a comfortable victory. [31] One key action Banks took in support of the antislavery movement was the dismissal of Judge Edward G. Loring. [32] Loring had ruled in 1854 that Anthony Burns, a fugitive slave, be returned to slavery under the terms of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. [33] Under the pressure of a public petition campaign spearheaded by William Lloyd Garrison, the legislature passed two Bills of Address, in 1855 and 1856, calling for Loring's removal from his state office, but in both cases Gardner had declined to remove him. Banks signed a third such bill in 1858. [32] He was rewarded with significant antislavery support, easily winning reelection in 1858. [34]

Banks's 1859 reelection was influenced by two significant issues. One was a state constitutional amendment requiring newly naturalized citizens to wait two years before becoming eligible to vote. Promoted by the state's Know Nothings, it was passed by referendum in May of that year. Banks, catering to Know Nothing supporters, supported its passage, although Republicans elsewhere opposed such measures, because they were seeking immigrant votes. [35] The amendment was repealed in 1863. [36] The other issue was John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, which more radical Republicans (notably John Albion Andrew) expressed sympathy for. Not yet ready for armed conflict, the state voted for the more moderate Banks. [35] After the election, Banks vetoed a series of bills, over provisions removing a restriction limiting state militia participation to whites. This incensed the radical abolitionist forces in the legislature, but they were unable to override his vetoes in that year's session, or of similar bills passed in the next. [37]

Banks made a serious bid for the Republican presidential nomination in 1860, but dislike of him by the radicals in the state party harmed him. His failure to secure a majority in the state delegation prompted him to skip the national convention, [38] where he received first-ballot votes as a nominee for Vice President. [39] His attempt to promote Henry L. Dawes, another moderate Republican, as his successor in the governor's chair also failed: the party nominated the radical Andrew, who went on to win the general election. [40] Banks's farewell speech, given with civil war looming, was an appeal for moderation and union. [41]

During the summer of 1860, Banks accepted an offer to become a resident director of the Illinois Central Railroad, which had previously employed his mentor Robert Rantoul. [42] Banks moved to Chicago after leaving office, and was engaged primarily in the promotion and sale of the railroad's extensive lands. [43] He continued to speak out in Illinois against the breakup of the Union. [41]

As the Civil War became imminent in early 1861, President Abraham Lincoln considered Banks for a cabinet post, [44] despite a negative recommendation from Governor Andrew, who considered Banks to be unsuitable for any office. [45] Lincoln rejected Banks in part because he had accepted the railroad job, [46] but chose him as one of the first major generals (Maj. Gen.) of volunteers, appointing him on May 16, 1861. [47] Many of the professional soldiers in the regular army were unhappy with this [48] but Banks, given his national prominence as a leading Republican, brought political benefits to the administration, including the ability to attract recruits and money for the Union cause, despite his lack of field experience. [49]

First command Edit

Banks first commanded a military district in eastern Maryland, which notably included Baltimore, a hotbed of secessionist sentiment and a vital rail link. Banks for the most part stayed out of civil affairs, allowing political expression of secessionism to continue, while maintaining important rail connections between the north and Washington, DC. [50] He did, however arrest the police chief and commissioners of the city of Baltimore, and replaced the police force with one that had more carefully vetted pro-Union sympathies. [51] In August 1861, Banks was assigned to the western district of Maryland. There he was responsible for the arrest of legislators sympathetic to the Confederate cause (as was John Adams Dix, who succeeded Banks in the eastern district) in advance of legislative elections. This, combined with the release of local soldiers in his army to vote, ensured that the Maryland legislature remained pro-Union. [52] Banks's actions had a chilling effect on Confederate sentiment in Maryland. Although it was a slave state, it remained loyal through the war. [51]

Shenandoah Valley Campaign Edit

Banks's division technically belonged to George McClellan despite serving as an independent command in the Shenandoah Valley. On March 14, 1862, President Lincoln issued an executive order forming all troops in McClellan's department into corps. Banks thus became a corps commander, in charge of his own former division, now commanded by Brig. Gen Alpheus Williams, and the division of Brig. Gen James Shields, which was added to Banks's command. After Stonewall Jackson was turned back at the First Battle of Kernstown on March 23, Banks was instead ordered to pursue Jackson up the valley, to prevent him from reinforcing the defenses of Richmond. When Banks's men reached the southern Valley at the end of a difficult supply line, the president recalled them to Strasburg, at the northern end. [53] Jackson then marched rapidly down the adjacent Luray Valley, and encountered some of Banks' forces in the Battle of Front Royal on May 23. This prompted Banks to withdraw to Winchester, where Jackson again attacked on May 25. The Union forces were poorly arrayed in defense, and retreated in disorder across the Potomac River and back into Maryland. [54] An attempt to capture Jackson's forces in a pincer movement (with forces led by John Frémont and Irvin McDowell) failed, and Jackson was able to reinforce Richmond. Banks was criticized for mishandling his troops and performing inadequate reconnaissance in the campaign, [55] while his political allies sought to pin the blame for the debacle on the War Department. [56]

Northern Virginia Campaign Edit

In July, Maj. Gen John Pope was placed in command of the newly-formed Army of Virginia, which consisted of the commands of Banks, Irvin McDowell, and Franz Sigel. By early August this force was in Culpeper County. Pope gave Banks an ambiguous series of orders, directing him south of Culpeper to determine enemy strength, hold a fortified defensive position, and to engage the enemy. Banks showed none of the caution he had displayed against Stonewall Jackson in the Valley campaign, and moved to meet a larger force. Confederates he faced were numerically stronger and held, particularly around Cedar Mountain, the high ground. After an artillery duel began the August 9 Battle of Cedar Mountain he ordered a flanking maneuver on the Confederate right. Bank's bold attack seemed close to breaking in the Confederate line, and might have given him a victory if he had committed his reserves in a timely manner. Only excellent commanding by the Confederates at the crucial moment of the battle and the fortuitous arrival of Hill allowed their numerical superiority to tell. [57] Banks thought the battle one of the "best fought" one of his officers thought it an act of folly by an incompetent general." [58]

The arrival at the end of the day of Union reinforcements under Pope, as well as the rest of Jackson's men, resulted in a two-day stand-off there, with the Confederates finally withdrawing from Cedar Mountain on August 11. Stonewall Jackson observed that Banks's men fought well, and Lincoln also expressed confidence in his leadership. [59] During the Second Battle of Bull Run, Banks was stationed with his corps at Bristoe Station and did not participate in the battle. [60] [61] Afterwards, the corps was integrated into the Army of the Potomac as the XII Corps and marched north with the main army during the Confederate invasion of Maryland. On September 12, Banks was abruptly relieved of command.

Army of the Gulf Edit

In November 1862, President Lincoln gave Banks command of the Army of the Gulf, and asked him to organize a force of 30,000 new recruits, drawn from New York and New England. As a former governor of Massachusetts, he was politically connected to the governors of these states, and the recruitment effort was successful. [62] In December he sailed from New York with a large force of raw recruits to replace Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler at New Orleans, Louisiana, as commander of the Department of the Gulf. [63] Butler disliked Banks, but welcomed him to New Orleans and briefed him on civil and military affairs of importance. Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy, doubted the wisdom of replacing Butler (also a political general, and later a Massachusetts governor) with Banks, who he thought was a less able leader and administrator. [64] Banks had to contend not just with Southern opposition to the occupation of New Orleans, but also to politically hostile Radical Republicans both in the city and in Washington, who criticized his moderate approach to administration. [65]

Banks issued orders to his men prohibiting pillage, but the undisciplined troops chose to disobey them, particularly when near a prosperous plantation. A soldier of the New York 114th wrote: "The men soon learned the pernicious habit of slyly leaving their places in the ranks when opposite a planter's house. . Oftentimes a soldier can be found with such an enormous development of the organ of destructiveness that the most severe punishment cannot deter him from indulging in the breaking of mirrors, pianos, and the most costly furniture. Men of such reckless disposition are frequently guilty of the most horrible desecrations." [66]

Banks's wife joined him in New Orleans, and held lavish dinner parties for the benefit of Union soldiers and their families. On April 12, 1864, she played the role of the "Goddess of Liberty" surrounded by all of the states of the reunited country. She did not then know of her husband's loss at the Battle of Mansfield three days earlier. By July 4, 1864, however, occupied New Orleans had recovered from the Red River Campaign to hold another mammoth concert extolling the Union. [67]

Siege of Port Hudson Edit

Part of Banks's orders included instructions to advance up the Mississippi River to join forces with Ulysses S. Grant, in order to gain control of the waterway, which was under Confederate control between Vicksburg, Mississippi and Port Hudson, Louisiana. Grant was moving against Vicksburg, and Banks was under orders to secure Port Hudson before joining Grant at Vicksburg. He did not move immediately, because the garrison at Port Hudson was reported to be large, [68] his new recruits were ill-equipped and insufficiently trained for action, and he was overwhelmed by the bureaucratic demands of administering the occupied portions of Louisiana. [69] He did send forces to reoccupy Baton Rouge, and sent a small expedition that briefly occupied Galveston, Texas but was evicted in the Battle of Galveston on January 1, 1863. [70]

In 1862, several Union gunboats had successfully passed onto the river between Vicksburg and Port Hudson, interfering with Confederate supply and troop movements. In March 1863, after they had been captured or destroyed, naval commander David Farragut sought to run the river past Port Hudson in a bid to regain control over that area, and convinced Banks to make a diversionary land attack on the Confederate stronghold. Banks marched with 12,000 men from Baton Rouge on March 13, but was unable to reach the enemy position due to inaccurate maps. He then compounded the failure to engage the enemy with miscommunications with Farragut. [71] [72] The naval commander successfully navigated two gunboats past Port Hudson, taking fire en route, without support. Banks ended up retreating back to Baton Rouge, his troops plundering all along the way. The episode was a further blow to Banks's reputation as a military commander, leaving many with the false impression he had not wanted to support Farragut. [71]

Under political pressure to show progress, Banks embarked on operations to secure a route that bypassed Port Hudson via the Red River in late March. [73] He was eventually able to reach Alexandria, Louisiana, but stiff resistance from the smaller forces of Confederate General Richard Taylor meant he did not get there until early May. His army seized thousands of bales of cotton, and Banks claimed to have interrupted supplies to Confederate forces further east. During these operations Admiral Farragut turned command of the naval forces assisting Banks over to David Porter, with whom Banks had a difficult and prickly relationship. [74]

Following a request from Grant for assistance against Vicksburg, Banks finally laid siege to Port Hudson in May 1863. [75] Two attempts to storm the works, as with Grant at Vicksburg, were dismal failures. The first, made against the entrenched enemy on May 27, failed because of inadequate reconnaissance and because Banks failed to ensure the attacks along the line were coordinated. [76] [77] After a bloody repulse, Banks continued the siege, and launched a second assault on June 14. It was also badly coordinated, and the repulse was equally bloody: each of the two attacks resulted in more than 1,800 Union casualties. [76] The Confederate garrison under General Franklin Gardner surrendered on July 9, 1863, after receiving word that Vicksburg had fallen. [78] This brought the entire Mississippi River under Union control. The siege of Port Hudson was the first time that African-American soldiers were used in a major Civil War battle. The United States Colored Troops were authorized in 1863 and recruiting and training had to be conducted. [79] [80]

In the autumn of 1863, Lincoln and Chief of Staff Henry Halleck informed Banks that plans should be made for operations against the coast of Texas, chiefly for the purpose of preventing the French in Mexico from aiding the Confederates or occupying Texas, and to interdict Confederate supplies from Texas heading east. [81] The second objective he attempted to achieve at first by sending a force against Galveston his troops were badly beaten in the Second Battle of Sabine Pass on September 8. [82] An expedition sent to Brownsville secured possession of the region near the mouth of the Rio Grande and the Texas outer islands in November. [83]

Red River Campaign Edit

As part of operations against Texas, Halleck also encouraged Banks to undertake the Red River Campaign, an overland operation into the resource-rich but well-defended parts of northern Texas. Banks and General Grant both considered the Red River Campaign a strategic distraction, with an eastward thrust to capture Mobile, Alabama preferred. [84] Political forces prevailed, and Halleck drafted a plan for operations on the Red River. [85]

The campaign lasted from March to May 1864, and was a major failure. Banks's army was routed at the Battle of Mansfield (April 8) by General Taylor and retreated 20 miles (32 km) to make a stand the next day at the Battle of Pleasant Hill. Despite winning a tactical victory at Pleasant Hill, Banks continued the retreat to Alexandria, his force rejoining part of Porter's Federal Inland Fleet. That naval force had joined the Red River Campaign to support the army [86] and to take on cotton as a lucrative prize of war. Banks was accused of allowing "hordes" of private cotton speculators to accompany the expedition, but only a few did, and most of the cotton seized was taken by the army or navy. Banks did little, however, to prevent unauthorized agents from working the area. [87] A cooperating land force launched from Little Rock, Arkansas was turned back in the Camden Expedition. [88]

Part of Porter's large fleet became trapped above the falls at Alexandria by low water, engineered by Confederate action. [89] Banks and others approved a plan proposed by Joseph Bailey to build wing dams as a means to raise what little water was left in the channel. In ten days, 10,000 troops built two dams, and managed to rescue Porter's fleet, allowing all to retreat to the Mississippi River. [90] After the campaign, General William T. Sherman famously said of the Red River campaign that it was "One damn blunder from beginning to end", [91] and Banks earned the dislike and loss of respect of his officers and rank and file for his mishandling of the campaign. [92] On hearing of Banks's retreat in late April, Grant wired Chief of Staff Halleck asking for Banks to be removed from command. [93] The Confederates held the Red River for the remainder of the war. [94]

Louisiana Reconstruction Edit

Banks undertook a number of steps intended to facilitate the Reconstruction plans of President Lincoln in Louisiana. When Banks arrived in New Orleans, the atmosphere was somewhat hostile to the Union owing to some of Butler's actions. Banks moderated some of Butler's policies, freeing civilians that Butler had detained and reopening churches whose ministers refused to support the Union. He recruited large numbers of African Americans for the military, and instituted formal works and education programs to organize the many slaves who had left their plantations, believing they had been freed. Because Banks believed the plantation owners would need to play a role in Reconstruction, the work program was not particularly friendly to African Americans, requiring them to sign year-long work contracts, and subjecting vagrants to involuntary public work. [95] The education program was effectively shut down after Southerners regained control of the city in 1865. [96]

In August 1863, President Lincoln ordered Banks to oversee the creation of a new state constitution, and in December granted him wide-ranging authority to create a new civilian government. [97] [98] However, because voter enrollment was low, Banks cancelled planned Congressional elections, and worked with civilian authorities to increase enrollment rates. After a February 1864 election organized by Banks, a Unionist government was elected in Louisiana, and Banks optimistically reported to Lincoln that Louisiana would "become in two years, under a wise and strong government, one of the most loyal and prosperous States the world has ever seen." [99] A constitutional convention held from April to July 1864 drafted a new constitution that provided for the emancipation of slaves. [100] Banks was a significant influence on the convention, insisting that provisions be included for African-American education and at least partial suffrage. [101]

By the time the convention ended, Banks's Red River Campaign had come to its ignominious end and Banks was superseded in military (but not political) matters by Major General Edward Canby. President Lincoln ordered Banks to oversee elections held under the new constitution in September, and then ordered him to return to Washington to lobby Congress for acceptance of Louisiana's constitution and elected Congressmen. [102] Radical Republicans in Congress railed against his political efforts in Louisiana, [103] and refused to seat Louisiana's two Congressmen in early 1865. After six months, Banks returned to Louisiana to resume his military command under Canby. However, he was politically trapped between the civilian government and Canby, and resigned from the army in May 1865 after one month in New Orleans. He returned to Massachusetts in September 1865. [104] In early 1865, Secretary of War Halleck ordered William Farrar Smith and James T. Brady to investigate breaches of Army regulations during the occupation of New Orleans. The commissioners' report, which was not published, found that the military administration was riddled by "oppression, peculation, and graft". [105]

Military recognition of Banks's service in the war included election in 1867 and 1875 as commander of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts. [106] In 1892, he was elected as a Veteran First Class Companion of the Massachusetts Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, a military society for officers who had served the Union during the Civil War. [107]

On his return to Massachusetts, Banks immediately ran for Congress, for a seat vacated by the resignation of Radical Republican Daniel W. Gooch. The Massachusetts Republican Party, dominated by Radicals, opposed his run, but he prevailed easily at the state convention and in the general election, partially by wooing Radical voters by proclaiming support for Negro suffrage. [108] He served from 1865 to 1873, during which time he chaired the Foreign Affairs Committee. [109] Despite his nominally moderate politics, he was forced to vote with the Radicals on many issues, to avoid being seen as a supporter of President Johnson's policies. [110] He was active in supporting the reconstruction work he had done in Louisiana, trying to get its Congressional delegation seated in 1865. He was opposed in this by a powerful faction in Louisiana, who argued he had essentially set up a puppet regime. He also alienated Radical Republicans by accepting a bill on the matter that omitted a requirement that states not be readmitted until they had given their African-American citizenry voting rights. [111] Despite his position as chair of an important committee, Banks was snubbed by President Grant, who worked around him whenever possible. [112]

During this period in Congress, Banks was one of the strongest early advocates of Manifest Destiny. He introduced legislation promoting offers to annex all of British North America (effectively today's Canada), which drew neither domestic interest, nor that of the Canadians. [113] This and other proposals he made died in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, chaired by Charles Sumner. [114] They served to make him unpopular in Britain and Canada, but played well to his heavily Irish-American constituency. [115] Banks also played a significant role in securing passage of the Alaska Purchase funding bill, enacted in 1868. [116] Banks's financial records strongly suggest he received a large gratuity from the Russian minister after the Alaska legislation passed. [117] Although questions were raised not long after the bill's passage, a House investigation of the matter effectively whitewashed the affair. Biographer Fred Harrington believes that Banks would have supported the legislation regardless of the payment he is alleged to have received. [118] Banks also supported unsuccessful efforts to acquire some Caribbean islands, including the Danish West Indies and the Dominican Republic. [119] He spoke out in support of Cuban independence. [120]

In 1872, Banks joined the Liberal-Republican revolt in support of Horace Greeley. He had to some degree opposed a party trend away from labor reform, a subject that was close to many of his working-class constituents, but not the wealthy businessmen who were coming to dominate the Republican Party. [121] While Banks was campaigning across the North for Greeley, the Radical Daniel W. Gooch successfully gathered enough support to defeat him for reelection it was Banks' first defeat by Massachusetts voters. After his loss, Banks invested in an unsuccessful start-up Kentucky railroad headed by John Frémont, hoping its income would substitute for the political loss. [122]

Seeking a revival of his political fortunes, in 1873 Banks ran successfully for the Massachusetts Senate, supported by a coalition of Liberal Republicans, Democrats, and Labor Reform groups. The latter groups he wooed in particular, adopting support for shorter workdays. In that term, he help draft and secure passage of a bill restricting hours of women and children to ten hours per day. [123] In 1874, Banks was elected to Congress again, supported by a similar coalition in defeating Gooch. [124] He served two terms (1875–1879), losing in the 1878 nominating process after formally rejoining the Republican fold. He was accused in that campaign of changing his positions too often to be considered reliable. [125] After his defeat, President Rutherford B. Hayes appointed Banks as a United States marshal for Massachusetts as a patronage reward for his service. He held the post from 1879 until 1888, but exercised poor oversight over his subordinates. He consequently became embroiled in legal action over the recovery of unpaid fees. [126]

In 1888, Banks once again won a seat in Congress. He did not have much influence, because his mental health was failing. [127] After one term he was not renominated, and retired to Waltham. [128] His health continued to deteriorate, and he was briefly sent to McLean Hospital shortly before his death in Waltham on September 1, 1894. [129] His death made nationwide headlines he is buried in Waltham's Grove Hill Cemetery. [128]


Battle of First Winchester- May 25, 1862

Première bataille de Winchester

Shenandoah Valley Battlefields Foundation

After Union General Nathaniel Banks’s retreat north from Strasburg, Virginia on May 24, 1862, he arrayed his force of perhaps no more than 5,000 south of Winchester. His line stretched for about 2 ½ miles, from Camp Hill on the southeast edge of the town, to Bowers Hill, southwest of Winchester.

Despite what some historians contend, Banks was actually well respected by his troops. “Such was the unbounded confidence in him by the men under his command that they considered him equal to the task of extricating them from almost any difficulty,” Lieutenant Charles Boyce, 28th New York Infantry remembered. Lieutenant John Mead Gould of the 10th Maine wrote in a similar vein: “It seems singular that a retreat like this should have caused so little excitement.”

The confidence his men had in him was reassuring, but Banks still faced a difficult situation on the morning of May 25, 1862. Not only was he greatly outnumbered, as Confederate General “Stonewall” Jackson could count on probably close to 16,000 soldiers, but the town of Winchester also lay directly in the Union rear. Thus any retreat through the town’s streets would potentially be restricted. Next, his men were exhausted for example, two regiments that had been part of the rearguard, the 2nd Massachusetts and 27th Indiana, had marched upwards of thirty miles on May 24th. Finally, because so many of his supply wagons had been captured or destroyed by the Confederates, Banks’s men had little to nothing to eat.

Jackson’s Valley army began the action at daylight, with troops from General Isaac Trimble’s brigade, part of General Richard Ewell’s division, advancing towards their Union foe. “The fog now had become so dense as to make it impossible to see twenty steps in any direction,” one member of the 21st North Carolinian recalled, “…the men were drawn in, and the regiment lay down in an orchard and concealed itself behind a board fence to await the lifting of the fog.”

At around 5:40 a.m., the 21st North Carolina finally moved forward, the fog having partially lifted, but the regiment made no headway. Other Confederate efforts against the Federals southeast of the town were equally unsuccessful at that time.

Across the Valley Pike to the west, Confederate and Union batteries exchanged fire, the Southern artillery receiving heavy infantry fire. Jackson greatly outnumbered Banks, and at 7 a.m., he decided to unleash some of that manpower to outflank the Union position on Bowers Hill. To do this, he called on General Richard Taylor’s Louisiana brigade.

As Taylor marched his brigade into position for its attack on the western flank of Bowers Hill, Federal artillery opened up on it. Some Louisianans were hit, and others ducked. Taylor stopped the column, yelling: “What the hell are you dodging for? If there is any more of it, you will be halted under this fire for an hour!” The men stood up, and they pushed forward, but asTaylor later recalled, Jackson “…placed his hand on my shoulder, said, in a gentle voice, ‘I am afraid you are a wicked fellow,’ then turned and rode [off].”

Taylor got his men into position, formed them into a battle line, then led them forward. It was 7:30 a.m., Taylor rode in front of his brigade, all 2,000 of them in perfect order, and led them up Bowers Hill. The Union soldiers fired, the Federal artillery belched canister, but the Louisianans simply filled in the gaps and pressed on.

Taylor’s men quickly broke the Union line, Federal resistance collapsed, and the retreat through Winchester began. Although defeated, as Jackson later admitted, Banks’s force “preserved their organization remarkably well.” The problem arose when the town’s civilians – mostly women – got into the act. They threw things at the retreating Union soldiers, even fired weapons, killing several and wounding others. At one point Banks appealed to some of his men to rally and make a stand. “My God, men, don’t you love your country?” he apparently asked. “Yes,” one Yank replied, “and I am trying to get to it as fast as I can.

Stonewall Jackson entering Winchester by William D. Washington

The commotion in Winchester also held up Jackson’s men. They came on abandoned wagons from Banks’s supply train. “We found delicacies of every description, sutlers’ stores crowded with everything we wanted,” one Confederate officer remembered later, “and we were unable to pursue the enemy on account of the fatigued condition of our men…”

Delighted residents of Winchester thronged their Confederate heroes, also making pursuit challenging, and while most did try to pursue their beaten foe, they were unsuccessful, and Jackson ordered a halt after just a few miles.

What Jackson needed was his cavalry, but they were nowhere to be found. “Never was there such a chance for cavalry,” he later lamented. “Oh, that my cavalry was in place.”

Banks reached Martinsburg, Virginia, now West Virginia, by early afternoon, May 25th, the rest of his troops by about 5 p.m. That evening they crossed the Potomac River back into Maryland. Union casualties for the three day period, May 23 – 25, 1862, came to 71 killed, 243 wounded, and 1,714 captured or missing, for a total of 2,028. Jackson’s loss during that time amounted to 68 killed and 329 wounded. The Confederates had also captured over 9,300 stands of small arms, half a million rounds of ammunition, 34,000 pounds of commissary stores, and lots of quartermaster supplies.

Jackson had also retaken Winchester, and put the fear of God into the Federal authorities in Washington, D.C. How would they react now? Lincoln saw this as an opportunity, and his decisions would lead to the final stages of this 1862 Shenandoah Valley Campaign.

Major General Nathaniel Banks

Major-General Nathaniel P. Banks

Nathaniel Prentiss Banks was born on January 30, 1816 in Waltham, Massachusetts. He started working in the textile mills as a fourteen year-old, and would continue doing that for three years. Banks was basically a self-taught man, and after becoming interested in politics, would be elected to the state legislature, eventually being elected Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1850. Elected to the U.S. Congress several years later, Banks was elected Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives in 1856, quite an honor for a man who never went to college. In 1857 he ran successfully for governor of Massachusetts, serving two terms. Briefly considered for a cabinet position in the Lincoln administration, Banks was instead appointed major-general on May 16, 1861, so he out-ranked many of the professional soldiers.

On July 25, 1861, Banks was named commander of the Department of the Shenandoah, his headquarters initially at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. In that capacity, of course, he faced “Stonewall” Jackson during the spring 1862 Shenandoah Valley Campaign. Despite being defeated at both Front Royal and First Winchester, Banks was well-respected by his troops. One of his brigade commanders, Brigadier-General Alpheus Williams, considered Banks “…an officer of excellent judgement and good sense, but not familiar with military routine or etiquette.”

Following the May 25, 1862 Battle of First Winchester, one member of the 3rd Wisconsin wrote that, “…the retreat was said to be the best ever made during this campaign. All confidence is now placed in our noble commander, General Banks. All now look upon him as the right man for the right place.” Others echoed this same sentiment. “He managed the retreat nobly,” a New York correspondent reported, “and has inspired new faith in the soldiers for him.” And another member of Banks’s command felt that, “…the men have unbounded confidence in our noble general.”

Perhaps his lack of military experience would catch up with him, however, or maybe it was the ill feeling the professional soldiers had for a politician turned general. Whatever it was, Banks would fall out of favor in 1864. Two years prior, in December 1862, he took over command of the Department of the Gulf, with his headquarters in New Orleans. His predecessor, General Ben Butler, had been too lax while in command, and Banks had much to clean up from Butler’s tenure there. This Banks was able to do. Militarily, he enjoyed less success. He besieged Port Hudson, a Confederate stronghold along the Mississippi River, in May 1863, seeing it fall the second week of July that year, but that was primarily because Vicksburg had surrendered a few days before. What sealed his fate, however, was the ill-fated Red River Campaign of April 1864. Union General William T. Sherman called it “one damn blunder from beginning to end,” which pretty much sums up that entire operation. As a result of this failed campaign, Banks was replaced later that year by General Edward Canby, and although Banks remained in Louisiana for a while, there to help with the reconstruction of the state, he soon departed, resigning from the army in May 1865.


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